The image above illustrates the various types of fractures that can occur.  The terms "Compound Fracture" is used to describe a fracture that breaks through the skin resulting in an open wound or also called an "Open fracture".  Many displaced fractures, meaning the two ends of the bone do not align, are Compound fractures.  The term "Simple fracture" refers to fractures that are "closed" or do not penetrate through the skin.  The terms in the image above are used to describe the fracture line which can help in the repair or treatment when realigning.  Generally, the fracture line dictates the linen of drive of the force applied to the bone to cause the injury.  For example, the first image shows a transverse fracture.  The force to break the bone in this manner would likely be directed perpendicular to the bone shaft.  Whereas the third picture would require the force to be directed on an angle to the bone.  Spiral fractures typically occur with a twisting motion, ie. a planted foot that is pivoted too forcefully.  Greenstick fratures occur in younger patients where there bones are softer and can bend to some degree.  The bone fractures at the top of the bend.  

When fractures occur at growth plates, there is a specific naming system depending on where the fracture is in relation to the growth plate.  These are called Salter-Harris fracutres.  For your interest, I have included an image of Salter-Harris fracture types

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Type I:  The fracture occurs through the growth plate.  Often these types are hard to diagnose.  If the mechanism of action is there to warrant a fracture, this type is often diagnosed unless symptoms clear up quickly.  
Type II:  The fracture occurs through the growth plate and above.  These are typically clear to visualize and are the most commonly growth plate fracture.
Type III:  The fracture occurs through the growth plate and lower.  This is also avvery common type of growth plate fracture.  
Type IV:  This fracture line crosses through the growth plate and includes part of the upper and lower part of the bone.
Type V:  This fracture results in a compression where growth plate and end of bone is pushed into itself.  This is a more rare form of growth plate fracture.